Sunday, July 31, 2011

Bean shaped G-spot

The G-spot named for Ernst Gräfenberg, a German born gynecologist is a controversial thing. In 1950, Gräfenberg in his article entitled ‘The Role of Urethra in Female Orgasm’ he highlighted an erogenous (sexually sensitive) area located along the urethra on the anterior (front) vaginal wall.
In females, the urethra is the channel for urine from the urinary bladder to the outside world; the urethra’s opening is located between the clitoris and vagina.
Stimulation of the bean shaped G spot is said to produce heightened sexual arousal, strong orgasm and female ejaculation (fluid discharged from the urethra during sexual arousal). It is important to note that the exact anatomy of different women differs as well as their response(s) to sexual stimulation (a woman’s individual response also differs at different times).
The term G-spot was introduced to the mass media and public by the bestselling book The G Spot: And Other Discoveries About Human Sexuality published in 1982.
Puppo V: Embryology and anatomy of the vulva: the female orgasm and women's sexual health. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 2011 154(1):3-8. Go to reference
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Bean shaped G-spot

Saturday, July 23, 2011

Cherry-red spot

The retina is the eye’s inner layer that is sensitive to light and the choroid is the eye’s vascular layer that has numerous blood vessels.
The macula is an oval spot on the retina that has few ganglion cells unlike other regions of the retina that have numerous ganglion cells.
Ganglion cells are a type of neuron (nerve cell) that form the optic nerve that leaves the eye on its way to the brain.
In some disorders of lipid (fat) metabolism which may be inherited, the enzymes, which are proteins responsible in this case for the breakdown of fats are deficient or defective resulting in the abnormal excessive accumulation of fats in retinal ganglion cells.
The ganglion cells become opaque because of this abnormal accumulation of lipids, however, the macula does not become as opaque as the rest of the retina since it contains few ganglion cells. This means the underlying red vascular choroid with numerous blood vessels can still be seen through the macula when the eye is viewed using a fundoscope (ophthalmoscope), which is an instrument used to view the eye’s interior.
The macula therefore compared to the rest of the opaque retina appears as a cherry-red spot due to the visible underlying red choroid.
For somewhat different reasons, the cherry-red spot can also be seen in central retinal artery occlusion and other conditions.
Suvarna JC, Hajela SA: Cherry-red spot. J Postgrad Med, 2008 54(1):54-57. Go to reference

Human eye

Friday, July 15, 2011

Cauliflower ear

The elastic cartilage of the ear lacks blood vessels; instead, it relies on the adjacent perichondrium (layer of tissue surrounding cartilage), which contains blood vessels, for its nourishment.
Physical trauma to the ear from activities such as boxing, rugby, etc., cause blood to accumulate between the cartilage and the perichondrium. Consequently, the underlying cartilage is deprived of its nourishment and overtime new cartilage regenerates from the perichondrium in an irregular manner.
The end result is an enlarged, protruding and irregular ear that resembles a cauliflower – cauliflower ear.
Macdonald DJM, Calder N, Perrett G, McGuiness RG: Case presentation: a novel way of treating acute cauliflower ear in a professional rugby player. Br J Sports Med, 2005 39(6): e29. Go to reference

Cauliflower ear 

Saturday, July 9, 2011

Pear shaped uterus

A sex organ, the uterus (womb) is found within the female’s pelvis. In the young adult woman it measures about 7.5 cm long, 5 cm wide, 3 cm thick and weighs about 70 g – it is pear shaped. At the end of pregnancy the uterus weighs approximately 1 kg.
From inside to outside, the uterus is composed of 3 layers. The endometrium which is the innermost layer is shed monthly during menstruation; if pregnancy occurs, the developing human implants into the endometrium. The middle layer, the myometrium is composed of smooth muscle which contracts involuntarily periodically during the menstrual cycle (causes menstrual cramping), during orgasm (apex of sexual stimulation) as well as during childbirth. The outermost uterine layer consists of loose supporting tissue, the perimetrium.
Monga A, (ed.), 2006, Gynaecology by Ten Teachers, 18th edition, Hodder Arnold, London, page 11. Go to reference

Internal female reproductive organs viewed from the front and side

Wednesday, July 6, 2011

Almond shaped ovaries

Breast development, hip widening, fat deposition around the buttocks and thighs as well as the appearance of the other secondary sexual characteristics depend on estrogens – female sex hormones – elaborated by the paired ovaries found within the pelvis. Besides producing estrogens, the ovaries in young adult women which resemble almonds in shape and in size, are the site of egg (ovum) development and release.
At birth, females have about 1 million eggs (ova) in their ovaries; no new eggs are formed thereafter. At about the time of puberty (a transition period leading to the ability to reproduce) the number of ova will have diminished to about 300 000 and by menopause (permanent stoppage of menstrual periods at the variable age about 50 years) no active eggs exist in the ovaries. In contrast, men release (ejaculate) at once an average of about 300 million sperms after several days of abstinence. Furthermore men continue producing sperms into old age.
Monga A, (ed.), 2006, Gynaecology by Ten Teachers, 18th edition, Hodder Arnold, London, page 13. Go to reference

 Female internal reproductive organs